Blog de Jornalismo Especializado, Universidade Lusófona Porto

19
Abr 10

 

 

Cinzas vulcânicas causam crise na aeronáutica mundial

 

 

Por Joana Freitas e Carla Coelho

 

 

Erupção de vulcão na Islândia provocou enorme nuvem de poeiras que impediu mais de 70% dos voos entre Europa e o resto do mundo. Principal preocupação gera-se à volta da segurança.

 

 

Na região glaciar de Eyjafallajokull, na Islândia, um vulcão entrou em erupção no dia 21 de Março. As repercussões do fenómeno natural, que já obrigou à evacuação dos cerca de 500 habitantes, foram vindo a alastrar-se durante os últimos dias. Uma segunda erupção, no passado dia 14 de Abril, aumentou os efeitos nefastos da nuvem de fragmentos vulcânicos.

As cinzas provenientes da explosão do vulcão entraram na atmosfera, mantendo-se a uma altitude de 6 a 11 quilómetros. Apesar de não representar risco para a saúde pública, surgem outras consequências alarmantes, nomeadamente para os aparelhos e segurança do voo.

 

Segundo especialistas em questões de aeronáutica, que estuda a locomoção aérea no interior da atmosfera terrestre, os efeitos mais graves seriam nos motores e na falta de visibilidade dos pilotos. A entrada de cinzas ou poeiras nas turbinas do aparelho poderão conduzir ao bloqueio do motor, fazendo com que este deixe de funcionar em pleno voo, danificar as pás das turbinas ou as sondas electrónicas, e a coluna de fumo que se alastra ao longo de mais de 8 km de altura não permite aos pilotos visualizarem a rota e as pistas de aterragem, devido à opacidade que se forma no vidro dianteiro do “cockpit”. Mesmo que não implique a perda total do aparelho, as cinzas poderão fazer alguns danos, exigindo que um avião que tenha passado numa destas nuvens tenha de ser verificado.

Ao longo dos últimos 20 anos, por exemplo, foram registados mais de 80 casos de aviões apanhados em nuvens de partículas vulcânicas. As cinzas provocaram a perda de dois “Boeing 747” (ver vídeo abaixo) e danificaram outros 20 aparelhos, com custos de reparação na ordem de centenas de milhões de euros, segundo peritos.
Devido à relevância que este problema impõe, “centros de conselho sobre as cinzas vulcânicas” foram instalados em institutos meteorológicos em nove regiões do mundo.

 

 

Testes

 

No entanto, companhias aéreas como a KLM, Lufthansa, Bristish Airways e Air France, já efectuaram testes no meio da nuvem de cinzas, não constatando qualquer tipo de problema. Contrariando a opinião do Ministro dos Transportes britânico, Andrew Adonis, que afirmou que de acordo com as previsões meteorológicas, não será seguro voar sobre o norte da Europa durante alguns dias, o director-executivo da KLM, Peter Hartman, a bordo de um dos aviões que fez os testes, afirmou que não ocorreu "nada de incomum" durante o voo e espera obter autorização para reiniciar a actividade.

 

 

Historial


Não é a primeira vez que este vulcão, situado no sul da Islândia, entra em erupção. Em

1821, uma explosão semelhante prolongou-se por dois anos. Aliás, como refere a ACI Europe e a AEA, "a erupção do vulcão islandês não é um evento sem precedentes e os procedimentos aplicados noutras partes do mundo no caso de erupções vulcânicas não parecem exigir os tipos de restrições que actualmente estão a ser impostas na Europa". A explicação que parte das autoridades da aviação, no entanto, resume-se ao objectivo de proteger o público.

 

 

Os especialistas meteorológicos desconhecem o tempo que poderá durar esta situação, que já ultrapassou os atentados do 11 de Setembro relativamente a perturbações no espaço aéreo. Por agora, a solução passa por transportes terrestres e marítimos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fontes:

 

http://publico.pt/Sociedade/cinzas-vulcanicas-um-novo-perigo-para-a-aviacao_1432421

http://img243.imageshack.us/i/aviao1vt7.jpg/

http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeron%C3%A1

http://dn.sapo.pt/inicio/globo/interior.aspx?content_id=1547602&seccao=Europa

http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/internacional,autoridades-europeias-discutem-medidas-contra-crise-de-transporte,540191,0.htm

http://dn.sapo.pt/inicio/globo/interior.aspx?content_id=1547602&seccao=Europa

http://aeiou.expresso.pt/vulcao-entra-em-erupcao-no-sul-da-islandia=f572100

http://www.diariodopara.com.br/imagensdb/083607get.jpeg

 

 

 

 

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